Wilderness Medicine, First Aid, and Outdoor Skills
Basic Measures for First Aid

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US Army First Aid Manual
Fundamental Criteria for First Aid
Basic Measures for First Aid
First Aid for Special Wounds
First Aid for Fractures
First Aid for Climatic Injuries
First Aid for Bites and Stings
First Aid in Toxic Environments
First Aid for Psychological Reactions
Appendix A: First Aid Case and Kits, Dressings, and Bandages
Appendix B: Rescue and Transportation Procedures
Appendix C: Common Problems/Conditions
Appendix D: Digital Pressure
Appendix E: Decontamination Procedures
Appendix F: Glossary



Basic Measures for First Aid

Several conditions which require immediate attention are: an inadequate airway, lack of breathing or lack of heartbeat, and excessive loss of blood. A casualty without a clear airway or who is not breathing may die from lack of oxygen. Excessive loss of blood may lead to shock, and shock can lead to death; therefore, you must act immediately to control the loss of blood. All wounds are considered to be contaminated, since infection-producing organisms (germs) are always present on the skin, on clothing, and in the air. Any missile or instrument causing the wound pushes or carries the germs into the wound. Infection results as these organisms multiply. That a wound is contaminated does not lessen the importance of protecting it from further contamination. You must dress and bandage a wound as soon as possible to prevent further contamination. It is also important that you attend to any airway, breathing, or bleeding problem IMMEDIATELY because these problems may become life-threatening.
  • Open the Airway and Restore Breathing
  • Stop the Bleeding and Protect the Wound
  • Check and Treat for Shock



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