Wilderness Medicine, First Aid, and Outdoor Skills
Evaluate Casualty

Survive Outdoors Home
About Us
Contact Us
Disclaimer
 
REFERENCE TOPICS
Asthma
Babesiosis
Barotrauma
Bee Stings
Bicycle Safety
Boating Safety
Box Jellyfish
Bubonic Plague
Camping Safety
Catfish Sting
Chiggers
Chronic Wasting Disease
Deer Stand Injuries
Dehydration
Drowning
Edible Plants
Ehrlichiosis
Eye Injuries
Field Dressing Deer
First Aid Kits
Fractures
Frostbite
Getting Lost and Getting Found
Heat Exhaustion
Heat Stroke
Hunting Safety
Hyponatremia
Hypothermia
Ice Fishing Safety
Incubation Periods
Infectious Diarrhea
Jellyfish Stings
Lacerations
Lightning Safety
Lyme Disease
Malaria
Mosquito
Mushrooms
Poison Ivy, Oak, and Sumac
Portuguese Man of War
Psychology of Survival
Rabies Virus
Rehydration
Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever
Safe Foreign Travel
SARS
Scabies
Scorpions
Seasonal Allergies
Shark Attacks
Skiers Thumb
Snake Bites

 - Black Racer

 - Brown Snake

 - Copperhead Snake
 - Cottonmouth
 - Eastern Coral Snake
 - Fox Snake
 - Garter Snake
 - Sea Snakes
 - Timber Rattlesnake
 - Western Diamondback
Spiders
 - Baby Spiders
 - Banana Spider
 - Black Widow
 - Brown Recluse
 - Brown Widow
 - Daddy Long Legs
 - Fishing Spider
 - Forest Wolf Spider
 - Golden Rod Spider
 - Grass Spider
 - Green Lynx
 - Jumping Spider
 - Red Widow
 - Tarantula
Splinting
STARI
Stink Bugs
Sunburn
Swimmer's Ear
Tetanus
Ticks
Tornado Safety
Travel Immunizations
Trip Planning
Tularemia
West Nile Virus
Yellow Fever
 
TRAUMA PICTURES
Allergic Reactions
Amputations
Animal Attacks
Basal Cell Carcinoma
BB Gun Injury
Bee Stings
Burns
Chigger Bites
Dislocations
Eye Injury
Fish Hook Removal
Foreign Bodies
Fractures
Frostbite Pictures
Gunshot Wounds
Herpes Zoster
Hook Worm
Lacerations
Lyme Disease Rash
MRSA Infection
Poison Ivy Rash
Sea Lice Bites
Search and Rescue
Spider Bites
 - Brown Recluse Bites
Sunburn Pictures
Tendon Ruptures
US Army First Aid Manual
Fundamental Criteria for First Aid
Basic Measures for First Aid
First Aid for Special Wounds
First Aid for Fractures
First Aid for Climatic Injuries
First Aid for Bites and Stings
First Aid in Toxic Environments
First Aid for Psychological Reactions
Appendix A: First Aid Case and Kits, Dressings, and Bandages
Appendix B: Rescue and Transportation Procedures
Appendix C: Common Problems/Conditions
Appendix D: Digital Pressure
Appendix E: Decontamination Procedures
Appendix F: Glossary



Evaluate Casualty

1-1. Casualty Evaluation

The time may come when you must instantly apply your knowledge of lifesaving and first aid measures, possibly under combat or other adverse conditions. Any soldier observing an unconscious and/or ill, injured, or wounded person must carefully and skillfully evaluate him to determine the first aid measures required to prevent further injury or death. He should seek help from medical personnel as soon as possible, but must NOT interrupt his evaluation or treatment of the casualty. A second person may be sent to find medical help. One of the cardinal principles of treating a casualty is that the initial rescuer must continue the evaluation and treatment, as the tactical situation permits, until he is relieved by another individual. If, during any part of the evaluation, the casualty exhibits the conditions for which the soldier is checking, the soldier must stop the evaluation and immediately administer first aid. In a chemical environment, the soldier should not evaluate the casualty until the casualty has been masked and given the antidote. After providing first aid, the soldier must proceed with the evaluation and continue to monitor the casualty for further medical complications until relieved by medical personnel. Learn the following procedures well. You may become that soldier who will have to give first aid some day.

      NOTE

      Remember, when evaluating and/or treating a casualty, you should seek
      medical aid as soon as possible. DO NOT stop treatment, but if the
      situation allows, send another person to find medical aid.

      WARNING

      Again, remember, if there are any signs of chemical or biological agent
      poisoning, you should immediately mask the casualty. If it is nerve agent
      poisoning, administer the antidote, using the casualty's injector/ampules.

a. Step ONE. Check the casualty for responsiveness by gently shaking or tapping him while calmly asking, "Are you okay?" Watch for response. If the casualty does not respond, go to step TWO. If the casualty responds, continue with the evaluation.

    (1) If the casualty is conscious, ask him where he feels different than usual or where it hurts. Ask him to identify the location(s) of pain if he can, or to identify the area in which there is no feeling.

    (2) If the casualty is conscious but is choking and cannot talk, stop the evaluation and begin treatment.

WARNING

    IF A BROKEN NECK OR BACK IS SUSPECTED, DO NOT MOVE THE CASUALTY UNLESS TO SAVE HIS LIFE. MOVEMENT MAY CAUSE PERMANENT PARALYSIS OR DEATH.

b. Step TWO. Check for breathing.

    (1) If the casualty is breathing, proceed to step FOUR.

    (2) If the casualty is not breathing, stop the evaluation and begin treatment (attempt to ventilate). If an airway obstruction is apparent, clear the airway obstruction, then ventilate.

    (3) After successfully clearing the casualty's airway proceed to step THREE.

c. Step THREE. Check for pulse. If pulse is present, and the casualty is breathing, proceed to step FOUR.

    (1) If pulse is present, but the casualty is still not breathing, start rescue breathing.

d. Step FOUR. Check for bleeding. Look for spurts of blood or blood-soaked clothes. Also check for both entry and exit wounds. If the casualty is bleeding from an open wound, stop the evaluation and begin first aid treatment in accordance with the following tasks, as appropriate:

    (1) Arm or leg wound--, Put on a Field or Pressure Dressing.

    (2) Partial or complete amputation--, Put on a Tourniquet.

    (3) Open head wound--, Apply a Dressing to an Open Head Wound.

    (4) Open abdominal wound--, Apply a Dressing to an Open Abdominal Wound.

    (5) Open chest wound--, Apply a Dressing to an Open Chest Wound.

WARNING

    IN A CHEMICALLY CONTAMINATED AREA, DO NOT EXPOSE THE WOUND(S).
e. Step FIVE. Check for shock. If signs/symptoms of shock are present, stop the evaluation and begin treatment immediately. The following are nine signs and/or symptoms of shock.

    (1) Sweaty but cool skin (clammy skin).

    (2) Paleness of skin.

    (3) Restlessness or nervousness.

    (4) Thirst.

    (5) Loss of blood (bleeding).

    (6) Confusion (does not seem aware of surroundings).

    (7) Faster than normal breathing rate.

    (8) Blotchy or bluish skin, especially around the mouth.

    (9) Nausea and/or vomiting.

WARNING

    LEG FRACTURES MUST BE SPLINTED BEFORE ELEVATING THE LEGS
    AS A TREATMENT FOR SHOCK.

See Chapter 2, Section III for specific information regarding the causes and effects, signs/symptoms, and the treatment/prevention of shock.

f. Step SIX. Check for fractures (Chapter 4).

    (1) Check for the following signs/symptoms of a back or neck injury and treat as necessary.

    • Pain or tenderness of the neck or back area.

    • Cuts or bruises in the neck or back area.

    • Inability of a casualty to move (paralysis or numbness).

      o Ask about ability to move (paralysis).

      o Touch the casualty's arms and legs and ask whether he can feel your hand (numbness).

    • Unusual body or limb position.
WARNING

    UNLESS THERE IS IMMEDIATE LIFE-THREATENING DANGER, DO NOT
    MOVE A CASUALTY WHO HAS A SUSPECTED BACK OR NECK INJURY.
    MOVEMENT MAY CAUSE PERMANENT PARALYSIS OR DEATH.

    (2) Immobilize any casualty suspected of having a neck or back injury by doing the following:

    • Tell the casualty not to move.

    • If a back injury is suspected, place padding (rolled or folded to conform to the shape of the arch) under the natural arch of the casualty's back. For example, a blanket may be used as padding.

    • If a neck injury is suspected, place a roll of cloth under the casualty's neck and put weighted boots (filled with dirt, sand, and so forth) or rocks on both sides of his head.

    (3) Check the casualty's arms and legs for open or closed fractures.

    • Check for open fractures.

      o Look for bleeding.

      o Look for bone sticking through the skin.

    • Check for closed fractures.

      o Look for swelling.

      o Look for discoloration.

      o Look for deformity.

      o Look for unusual body position.

    *(4) Stop the evaluation and begin treatment if a fracture to an arm or leg is suspected. See task 081-831-1034, Splint a Suspected Fracture, Chapter 4, paragraphs 4-4 through 4-7

    (5) Check for signs/symptoms of fractures of other body areas (for example, shoulder or hip) and treat as necessary.

g. Step SEVEN. Check for burns. Look carefully for reddened, blistered, or charred skin, also check for singed clothing. If burns are found, stop the evaluation and begin treatment (Chapter 3, paragraph 3-14). See task 081-831-1007, Give First Aid for Burns.

h. Step EIGHT. Check for possible head injury.

    (1) Look for the following signs and symptoms:

    • Unequal pupils.

    • Fluid from the ear(s), nose, mouth, or injury site.

    • Slurred speech.

    • Confusion.

    • Sleepiness.

    • Loss of memory or consciousness.

    • Staggering in walking.

    • Headache.

    • Dizziness.

    • Vomiting and/or nausea.

    • Paralysis.

    • Convulsions or twitches.

    (2) If a head injury is suspected, continue to watch for signs which would require performance of mouth-to-mouth resuscitation, treatment for shock, or control of bleeding and seek medical aid. See Chapter 3, Section I for specific indications of head injury and treatment. See task 081-831-1033, Apply a Dressing to an Open Head Wound.

1-2. Medical Assistance (081-831-1000)

When a nonmedically trained soldier comes upon an unconscious and/or injured soldier, he must accurately evaluate the casualty to determine the first aid measures needed to prevent further injury or death. He should seek medical assistance as soon as possible, but he MUST NOT interrupt treatment. To interrupt treatment may cause more harm than good to the casualty. A second person may be sent to find medical help. If, during any part of the evaluation, the casualty exhibits the conditions for which the soldier is checking, the soldier must stop the evaluation and immediately administer first aid. Remember that in a chemical environment, the soldier should not evaluate the casualty until the casualty has been masked and given the antidote. After performing first aid, the soldier must proceed with the evaluation and continue to monitor the casualty for development of conditions which may require the performance of necessary basic life saving measures, such as clearing the airway, mouth-to-mouth resuscitation preventing shock, and/or bleeding control. He should continue to monitor until relieved by medical personnel.

Back to Fundamental Criteria for First Aid




© 2000-2010 Jalic Inc. • All Rights Reserved • All images archived in our 'Photos' and 'Reference' sections are property of Jalic Inc., unless otherwise stated.
Use of the images is prohibited without the express written consent of Jalic Inc.
DisclaimerPrivacy Policy