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Individual Protection and Aid Equipment

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US Army First Aid Manual
Fundamental Criteria for First Aid
Basic Measures for First Aid
First Aid for Special Wounds
First Aid for Fractures
First Aid for Climatic Injuries
First Aid for Bites and Stings
First Aid in Toxic Environments
First Aid for Psychological Reactions
Appendix A: First Aid Case and Kits, Dressings, and Bandages
Appendix B: Rescue and Transportation Procedures
Appendix C: Common Problems/Conditions
Appendix D: Digital Pressure
Appendix E: Decontamination Procedures
Appendix F: Glossary



Individual Protection and Aid Equipment

7-1. Toxic Substances

a. Gasoline, chlorine, and pesticides are examples of common toxic substances. They may exist as solids, liquids, or gases depending upon temperature and pressure. Gasoline, for example, is a vaporizable liquid; chlorine is a gas; and Warfarin, a pesticide, is a solid. Some substances are more injurious to the body than others when they are inhaled or eaten or when they contact the skin or eyes. Whether they are solids, liquids, or gases (vapors and aerosols included), they may irritate, inflame, blister, burn, freeze, or destroy tissue such as that associated with the respiratory tract or the eyes. They may also be absorbed into the bloodstream, disturbing one or several of the body's major functions.

b. You may come in contact with toxic substances in combat or in everyday activities. Ordinarily, brief exposures to common household toxic substances, such as disinfectants and bleach solutions, do not cause injuries. Exposure to toxic chemical agents in warfare, even for a few seconds, could result in death, injury, or incapacitation. Remember that toxic substances employed by an enemy could persist for hours or days. To survive and operate effectively in a toxic environment, you must be prepared to protect yourself from the effects of chemical agents and to provide first aid to yourself and to others.

7-2. Protective and First Aid Equipment

You are issued equipment for protection and first aid treatment in a toxic environment. You must know how to use the items described in Chapter 7 a through e. It is equally important that you know when to use them. Use your protective clothing and equipment when you are ordered to and when you are under a nuclear, biological, or chemical (NBC) attack. Also, use your protective clothing and equipment when you enter an area where NBC agents have been employed.

a. Field Protective Mask With Protective Hood. Your field protective mask is the most important piece of protective equipment. You are given special training in its use and care.

b. Field Protective Clothing. Each soldier is authorized three sets of the following field protective clothing:

  • Overgarment ensemble (shirt and trousers), chemical protective.

  • Footwear cover (overboots), chemical protective.

  • Glove set, chemical protective.

c. Nerve Agent Pyridostigmine Pretreatment (NAPP). You will be issued a blister pack of pretreatment tablets when your commander directs. When ordered to take the pretreatment you must take one tablet every eight hours. This must be taken prior to exposure to nerve agents, since it may take several hours to develop adequate blood levels.

NOTE

    Normally, one set of protective clothing is used in acclimatization training that uses
    various mission-oriented protective posture (MOPP) levels.

d. M258A1 Skin Decontamination Kit. The M258A1 Skin Decontamination (decon) Kit contains three each of the following:

  • DECON-1 packets containing wipes (pads) moistened with decon solution.

  • DECON-2 packets containing dry wipes (pads) previously moistened with decon solution and sealed glass ampules. Ampules are crushed to moisten pads.

WARNING

    The decon solution contained in both DECON-1 and DECON-2 packets is a poison
    and caustic hazard
    and can permanently damage the eyes. Keep wipes out of the eyes,
    mouth, and open wounds. Use WATER to wash toxic agent out of eyes and wounds
    and seek medical aid.

e. Nerve Agent Antidote Kit, Mark I (NAAK MKI). Each soldier is authorized to carry three Nerve Agent Antidote Kits, Mark I, to treat nerve agent poisoning. When NAPP has been taken several hours (but no greater than 8 hours) prior to exposure, the NAAK MKI treatment of nerve agent poisoning is much more effective.

Back to First Aid in Toxic Environments




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