Wilderness Medicine, First Aid, and Outdoor Skills
Individual Protection and Aid Equipment

Survive Outdoors Home
About Us
Contact Us
Bee Stings
Bicycle Safety
Boating Safety
Box Jellyfish
Bubonic Plague
Camping Safety
Catfish Sting
Chronic Wasting Disease
Deer Stand Injuries
Edible Plants
Eye Injuries
Field Dressing Deer
First Aid Kits
Getting Lost and Getting Found
Heat Exhaustion
Heat Stroke
Hunting Safety
Ice Fishing Safety
Incubation Periods
Infectious Diarrhea
Jellyfish Stings
Lightning Safety
Lyme Disease
Poison Ivy, Oak, and Sumac
Portuguese Man of War
Psychology of Survival
Rabies Virus
Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever
Safe Foreign Travel
Seasonal Allergies
Shark Attacks
Skiers Thumb
Snake Bites

 - Black Racer

 - Brown Snake

 - Copperhead Snake
 - Cottonmouth
 - Eastern Coral Snake
 - Fox Snake
 - Garter Snake
 - Sea Snakes
 - Timber Rattlesnake
 - Western Diamondback
 - Baby Spiders
 - Banana Spider
 - Black Widow
 - Brown Recluse
 - Brown Widow
 - Daddy Long Legs
 - Fishing Spider
 - Forest Wolf Spider
 - Golden Rod Spider
 - Grass Spider
 - Green Lynx
 - Jumping Spider
 - Red Widow
 - Tarantula
Stink Bugs
Swimmer's Ear
Tornado Safety
Travel Immunizations
Trip Planning
West Nile Virus
Yellow Fever
Allergic Reactions
Animal Attacks
Basal Cell Carcinoma
BB Gun Injury
Bee Stings
Chigger Bites
Eye Injury
Fish Hook Removal
Foreign Bodies
Frostbite Pictures
Gunshot Wounds
Herpes Zoster
Hook Worm
Lyme Disease Rash
MRSA Infection
Poison Ivy Rash
Sea Lice Bites
Search and Rescue
Spider Bites
 - Brown Recluse Bites
Sunburn Pictures
Tendon Ruptures
US Army First Aid Manual
Fundamental Criteria for First Aid
Basic Measures for First Aid
First Aid for Special Wounds
First Aid for Fractures
First Aid for Climatic Injuries
First Aid for Bites and Stings
First Aid in Toxic Environments
First Aid for Psychological Reactions
Appendix A: First Aid Case and Kits, Dressings, and Bandages
Appendix B: Rescue and Transportation Procedures
Appendix C: Common Problems/Conditions
Appendix D: Digital Pressure
Appendix E: Decontamination Procedures
Appendix F: Glossary

Individual Protection and Aid Equipment

7-1. Toxic Substances

a. Gasoline, chlorine, and pesticides are examples of common toxic substances. They may exist as solids, liquids, or gases depending upon temperature and pressure. Gasoline, for example, is a vaporizable liquid; chlorine is a gas; and Warfarin, a pesticide, is a solid. Some substances are more injurious to the body than others when they are inhaled or eaten or when they contact the skin or eyes. Whether they are solids, liquids, or gases (vapors and aerosols included), they may irritate, inflame, blister, burn, freeze, or destroy tissue such as that associated with the respiratory tract or the eyes. They may also be absorbed into the bloodstream, disturbing one or several of the body's major functions.

b. You may come in contact with toxic substances in combat or in everyday activities. Ordinarily, brief exposures to common household toxic substances, such as disinfectants and bleach solutions, do not cause injuries. Exposure to toxic chemical agents in warfare, even for a few seconds, could result in death, injury, or incapacitation. Remember that toxic substances employed by an enemy could persist for hours or days. To survive and operate effectively in a toxic environment, you must be prepared to protect yourself from the effects of chemical agents and to provide first aid to yourself and to others.

7-2. Protective and First Aid Equipment

You are issued equipment for protection and first aid treatment in a toxic environment. You must know how to use the items described in Chapter 7 a through e. It is equally important that you know when to use them. Use your protective clothing and equipment when you are ordered to and when you are under a nuclear, biological, or chemical (NBC) attack. Also, use your protective clothing and equipment when you enter an area where NBC agents have been employed.

a. Field Protective Mask With Protective Hood. Your field protective mask is the most important piece of protective equipment. You are given special training in its use and care.

b. Field Protective Clothing. Each soldier is authorized three sets of the following field protective clothing:

  • Overgarment ensemble (shirt and trousers), chemical protective.

  • Footwear cover (overboots), chemical protective.

  • Glove set, chemical protective.

c. Nerve Agent Pyridostigmine Pretreatment (NAPP). You will be issued a blister pack of pretreatment tablets when your commander directs. When ordered to take the pretreatment you must take one tablet every eight hours. This must be taken prior to exposure to nerve agents, since it may take several hours to develop adequate blood levels.


    Normally, one set of protective clothing is used in acclimatization training that uses
    various mission-oriented protective posture (MOPP) levels.

d. M258A1 Skin Decontamination Kit. The M258A1 Skin Decontamination (decon) Kit contains three each of the following:

  • DECON-1 packets containing wipes (pads) moistened with decon solution.

  • DECON-2 packets containing dry wipes (pads) previously moistened with decon solution and sealed glass ampules. Ampules are crushed to moisten pads.


    The decon solution contained in both DECON-1 and DECON-2 packets is a poison
    and caustic hazard
    and can permanently damage the eyes. Keep wipes out of the eyes,
    mouth, and open wounds. Use WATER to wash toxic agent out of eyes and wounds
    and seek medical aid.

e. Nerve Agent Antidote Kit, Mark I (NAAK MKI). Each soldier is authorized to carry three Nerve Agent Antidote Kits, Mark I, to treat nerve agent poisoning. When NAPP has been taken several hours (but no greater than 8 hours) prior to exposure, the NAAK MKI treatment of nerve agent poisoning is much more effective.

Back to First Aid in Toxic Environments

© 2000-2010 Jalic Inc. • All Rights Reserved • All images archived in our 'Photos' and 'Reference' sections are property of Jalic Inc., unless otherwise stated.
Use of the images is prohibited without the express written consent of Jalic Inc.
DisclaimerPrivacy Policy