First Aid for Chemical & Biological Attacks
a. Chemical agents may be classified according to the
primary physiological effects they produce, such as nerve, blister,
blood, choking, vomiting, and incapacitating agents.
b. Biological agents may be classified according to the
effect they have on man. These include blockers, inhibitors, hybrids,
and membrane active compounds. These agents are found in living
organisms such as fungi, bacteria and viruses.
Ingesting water or food contaminated with nerve, blister,
and other chemical agents and
with some biological agents can
be fatal. NEVER consume water or food which is
suspected of being
contaminated until it has been tested and found safe for consumption.
Once an attack with a chemical or biological agent is detected
or suspected, or information is available that such an agent is
about to be use, you must STOP breathing and
mask immediately. DO NOT WAIT to receive an order
or alarm under the following circumstances:
- Your position is hit by artillery or mortar fire, missiles,
rockets, smokes, mists, aerial sprays, bombs, or bomblets.
- Smoke from an unknown source is present or approaching.
- A suspicious odor, liquid, or solid is present.
- A toxic chemical or biological attack is present.
- You are entering an area known or suspected of being contaminated.
- During any motor march, once chemical warfare has begun.
- When casualties are being received from an area where chemical
or biological agents have reportedly been used.
- You have one or more of the following symptoms:
o An unexplained runny nose.
o A feeling of choking or tightness in the chest or throat.
o Dimness of vision.
o Irritation of the eyes.
o Difficulty in or increased rate of breathing without obvious reasons.
o Sudden feeling of depression.
o Dread, anxiety, restlessness.
o Dizziness or light-headedness.
o Slurred speech.
- Unexplained laughter or unusual behavior is noted in others.
- Numerous unexplained ill personnel.
- Buddies suddenly collapsing without evident cause.
- Animals or birds exhibiting unusual behavior and/or sudden
For further information, see FM 3-4.
Your field protective mask gives protection against chemical as
well as biological agents. Previous practice enables you to mask
in 9 seconds or less or to put on your mask with hood within 15
|a. Step ONE (081-831-1030 and 081-831-1031).
Stop breathing. Don your mask, seat it properly, clear and check
your mask, and resume breathing. Give the alarm, and continue
the mission. Keep your mask on until the "all clear"
signal has been given.|
| b. Step TWO (081-831-1030).
If symptoms of nerve agent poisoning (paragraph 7-7) appear, immediately
give yourself a nerve agent antidote. You should have taken NAPP
several hours prior to exposure which will enhance the action
of the nerve agent antidote.|
Do not inject a nerve agent antidote until you are sure you
| c. Step THREE (081-831-1031).
If your eyes and face become contaminated, you must immediately
try to get under cover. You need this shelter to prevent further
contamination while performing decon procedures on areas of the
head. If no overhead cover is available, throw your poncho or
shelter half over your head before beginning the decon process.
Then you should put on the remaining protective clothing. (See
Appendix F for decon procedure.) If
vomiting occurs, the mask should be lifted momentarily and drained--while
the eyes are closed and the breath is held--and replaced, cleared,
d. Step FOUR. If nerve agents are used, mission permitting
watch for persons needing nerve agent antidotes and immediately
follow procedures outlined in paragraph 7-8b.
e. STEP FIVE. When your mission permits, decon your clothing
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